[25] The problem of evil in the context of animal suffering, states Almeida, can be stated as:[29][note 2], Theism that forgoes absolute omniscience, omnipotence, or omnibenevolence, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem_of_evil. The debate in the recent literature about the problem of evil has shifted from preoccupation with the logical argument to an increased focus on the evidential argument. The logical problem can be contrasted with the evidential problem of evil, which does not claim that just any evil would be inconsistent with God, but that the existence of the kind of terrible suffering which we know to exist gives good evidence for the conclusion that such a God does not exist. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. 1. The evidential version of the problem of evil (also referred to as the probabilistic or inductive version), seeks to show that the existence of evil, although logically consistent with the existence of God, counts against or lowers the probability of the truth of theism. The logical problem of evil (including providence) involves mystery, requiring that Christians maintain doctrinal tensions in biblical proportion. 11:44. Both of these arguments are understood to be presenting two forms of … Journalist and best-selling author Lee Strobel commissioned George Barna, the public-opinion pollster, to conduct a nationwide survey. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. To show that the first premise is plausible, subsequent versions tend to expand on it, such as this modern example:[2]. This is called skeptical theism because the argument aims to encourage self-skepticism, either by trying to rationalize God’s possible hidden motives, or by trying t… The first and perhaps most important step of this stage-setting process will be to identify and clarify the conception of God that is normally presupposed in contemporary debates (at least within the Anglo-American analytic tradition) on the problem of evil. The logical problem of evil explains that the existence of evil is not consistent with the existence of a God. The evidential problem of evil points to the improbability that the amount of evil we see in the world – particularly gratuitous evil – would exist if an omnipotent, omnibenevolent God exists. (Therefore) There does not exist an omnipotent, omniscient, wholly good being. By contrast, evidential problems of evil aim to show that the existence of the omniGod is unlikely. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. This version of the problem of evil has been used by scholars including John Hick to counter the responses and defenses to the problem of evil such as suffering being a means to perfect the morals and greater good because animals are innocent, helpless, amoral but sentient victims. The phrase “problem of evil” can be used to refer to a host of different dilemmas arising over the issue of God and evil. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The sufferings of millions of the lower animals throughout almost endless time’ are apparently irreconcilable with the existence of a Creator of ‘unbounded’ goodness. They attempt to show that the assumed propositions lead to a logical contradiction and therefore cannot all be correct. The inductive or evidential problem of evil is more modest. If there exists an omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent God, then no evil exists. [23] This is also referred to the Darwinian problem of evil,[24][25] after Charles Darwin who expressed it as follows:[26]. May I go on to explain why certain elements in your response appear to me to be unjustifiable? I have been getting more into philosophy and a guy I followed online has really stumped the Christians he has proposed this question to. The "evidential problem of … Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Evidential problem of evil section. The evil of extensive animal suffering exists. Both of these arguments are understood to be presenting two forms of the logical problem of evil. The Logical Problem of Evil James Hall. The logical problem of evil argues that evil existing and God existing involves a contradiction. Thus a rape or a murder of an innocent child is defended as having a God’s purpose that a human being may not comprehend, but which may lead to lesser evil or greater good. God is omnipotent, omniscient and wholly good. These tend to fall, however, into two main groups. Loading... Unsubscribe from James Hall? Unlike the logical argument from evil, which holds that the existence of God (so defined) is logically incompatible with some known fact about evil, the evidential (or probabilistic) argument from evil contends that some known fact about evil is evidence against the existence of God. You can express the problem as a logical argument like this: P1 There is a being who possesses omnipotence and perfect goodness P2 A perfectly good being wishes to remove evil and an omnipotent being possess the power to do whatever it wishes The problem of evil is often formulated in two forms: the logical problem of evil and the evidential problem of evil. Plantinga's argument is a defense against the logical problem of evil as formulated by the philosopher J. L. Mackie beginning in 1955. The hole in the logic is that it assumes that God does not have a greater purpose in allowing the evil created by free choice to continue for a time. An omnibenevolent being would want to prevent all evils. So what is the best Christian response to the logical/evidential problem of evil. Both absolute versions and relative versions of the evidential problems of evil are presented below. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. An omniscient, wholly good being would prevent the occurrence of any intense suffering it could, unless it could not do so without thereby losing some greater good or permitting some evil equally bad or worse. Skeptical theism defends the problem of evil by asserting that God allows an evil to happen in order to prevent a greater evil or to encourage a response that will lead to a greater good. There was no problem of evil before the fall, nor will there be one in the eternal state. Originally Posted by mclarksn9 So what is the best Christian response to the logical/evidential problem of evil. The Evidential Problem of Evil is related to the Logical Problem of Evil in that it tries to show that the characteristics of God, as He is commonly conceived, are inconsistent with what we observe in the world. The logical and evidential problem of evil. • Philosophy tutor Evil exists (logical contradiction). Independent of whether the logical vs. evidential distinction is significant, I have a problem with it from a ‘naming convention’ perspective. On theone hand, there are metaphysical interpretations of the term: God isa prime mover, or a first cause, or a necessary being that has itsnecessity of itself, or the ground of being, or a being whos… The evidential problem states that if there is an omniscient being, how could he allow this kind of suffering and evil? If there exists an omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent God, then no evil exists. The Evidential Problem of Evil differs from the Logical … Answered by Jonathan A. Most philosophical debate has focused on the propositions stating that God cannot exist with, or would want to prevent, all evils (premises 3 and 6), with defenders of theism (for example, Leibniz) arguing that God could very well exist with and allow evil in order to achieve a greater good. O bjections to P5: N on-ClassicalTheism Process Theism Open Theism Form ulating the Problem ofEvil Logical vs. Evidential LogicalProblem ofEvil P1. An omnipotent being has the power to prevent that evil from coming into existence. If God lacks any one of these qualities—omniscience, omnipotence, or omnibenevolence—then the logical problem of evil can be resolved. If God is all-powerful, all-knowing and perfectly good, why does he let so many bad things h… The existence of an all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-good God is logically incompatible with the reality of evil. Evidential problem of evil Alternatively, rather than being formulated as a deductive argument for the very strong claim that it is logically impossible for both God and evil to exist, the argument from evil can instead be formulated as an evidential (or inductive/probabilistic) argument for the more modest claim that there are evils that actually exist in the world that make it unlikely—or … See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. A being who knows every way in which an evil can come into existence, who is able to prevent that evil from coming into existence, and who wants to do so, would prevent the existence of that evil. I have been getting more into Logical/Evidential Problem of Evil (believers, elder, daughter, sin) - Christianity - - Page 13 - City-Data Forum The evidential version of the problem of evil (also referred to as the probabilistic or inductive version), seeks to show that the existence of evil, although logically consistent with the existence of God, counts against or lowers the probability of the truth of theism. You can change your ad preferences anytime. The section entitled "Evidential problem of evil" quotes: "The logical possibility of hidden reasons for the existence of evil still exist. Necessarily, God can actualize an evolutionary perfect world only if God does actualize an evolutionary perfect world. There is a difference between the Logical Problem of Evil (LPOE) and the Evidential Problem of Evil (EPOE). [4][27][28] Scholar Michael Almeida said this was “perhaps the most serious and difficult” version of the problem of evil. Necessarily, God actualized an evolutionary perfect world. Afterwards, I will move on to refute the evidential version of the problem of evil via a three legged stool response; (1) Our cognitive limitations make it impossible to make a … God is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent. Thank you very much for your response to my questions regarding the problem of evil. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. As an example, a critic of Plantinga’s idea of “a mighty nonhuman spirit” causing natural evils may concede that the existence of such a being is not logically impossible but argue that due to lacking scientific evidence for its existence this is very unlikely and thus it is an unconvincing explanation for the presence of natural evils. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. I am sincerely grateful for your taking the time to consider what I wrote to you. Logical vs evidential problem of evil The problem of evil can be understood in two ways: logical and evidential. If #1 is true then either #2 or #5 is true, but not both. James Hall 1,177 views. Evaluating philosophical claims and theories, No public clipboards found for this slide, The logical and evidential problem of evil(1). Whereas the logical problem of evil argued that the mere existence of evil in the world proves God cannot exist, the evidential problem of evil argues that the amount of evil in the world is so great that it is highly improbable that a good God exists. William Rowe's formulation One of the more influential versions of the argument, first published in 1978. Therefore, evidence prefers that no god, as commonly understood by theists, exists. The argument usually takes the following form: (1) If God exists, gratuitous evil would not exist (2) Gratuitous evil exists (3) Therefore God… Therefore, an omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent God does not exist. Before delving into the deep and often murky waters of the problem of evil, it will be helpful to provide some philosophical background to this venerable subject. Hello Lenny. Necessarily, God can actualize an evolutionary perfect world. However, the existence of God is viewed as any other hypothesis. The term “God” is used with a wide variety of differentmeanings. The next step will involve providing an outline of some important concepts and distincti… Alvin Plantinga's free-will defense is a logical argument developed by the American analytic philosopher Alvin Plantinga and published in its final version in his 1977 book God, Freedom, and Evil. [4] One version of this problem includes animal suffering from natural evil, such as the violence and fear faced by animals from predators, natural disasters, over the history of evolution. This is a contradiction, so #1 is not true. Process theology and open theism are other positions that limit God’s omnipotence and/or omniscience (as defined in traditional theology). For example, someone who raises the problem of evil may be referring to the religious/emotional problem of evil, the logical problem of evil, the evidential problem of evil, moral evil, or natural evil, just to name a few. I will first refute the logical version of the problem of evil and demonstrate why God and evil can possibly co-exist. In my tutorial regarding conjunctions and contradictions I mention that you cannot have the conjuction of ‘A and not A’. In contrast, William Rowe's Evidential Formulation of the Problem of Evil differs from the Logical Problem of Evil because it is an inductive argument with a lesser 'burden of proof' - it does not purport a certain conclusion.Rowe’s evidential argument hinges on a change in the EPISTEMIC STANDARD appropriate to the premises of the argument from evil – from CERTAINTY to RATIONALLY SUPPORTED. Dystheism is the belief that God is not wholly good. The survey included the question “If you could ask God only one question and you knew he would give you an answer, what would you ask?” The most common response, offered by 17% of those who could think of a question was “Why is there pain and suffering in the world?” (Strobel 2000, p. 29). Logical problems of evil aim to show that belief in God is irrational. Evil doesn't exist Logical Problem of evil Vs Evidential Problem of Evil •the amount and kind of evil we find at the actual world is relevant to the EPE not the LPE; and •the EPE does not claim to be a disproof of the existence of God but only as a very good reason to accept atheism. For example, in Rowe’s essay, he used the example of a suffering fawn. Evidential Problem of Evil This argument attempts to decrease the probability of the existence of the God of classical theism, unlike the logical problem of evil which attempts to refute it. The logical problem of evil contends that there is a strong logical incompatibility between God and evil, such that it is logically impossible for God and evil to coexist (or there is no possible world where God and evil coexists). The Problem of Evil - Part 2. The evidential problem is just the opposite. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. An omniscient being knows every way in which evils can come into existence, and knows every way in which those evils could be prevented. The second version of the problem of evil applied to animals, and avoidable suffering experienced by them, is one caused by some human beings, such as from animal cruelty or when they are shot or slaughtered. There exist instances of intense suffering which an omnipotent, omniscient being could have prevented without thereby losing some greater good or permitting some evil equally bad or worse. God uses evil for a greater good. Originating with Greek philosopher Epicurus,[20] the logical argument from evil is as follows: This argument is of the form modus tollens, and is logically valid: If its premises are true, the conclusion follows of necessity. The Evidential Problem of Evil - Duration: 11:44. The problem of evil has also been extended beyond human suffering, to include suffering of animals from cruelty, disease and evil. Does actualize an evolutionary perfect world evidential problem of evil is more modest, how could allow! True then either # 2 or # 5 is true, but both... Have a problem with it from a ‘ naming convention ’ perspective state!: 11:44 aim to show that the assumed propositions lead to a contradiction... Vs. evidential LogicalProblem ofEvil P1 I am sincerely grateful for your taking time..., first published in 1978 questions regarding the problem ofEvil logical vs. evidential LogicalProblem ofEvil.. Proposed this question to problem with it from a ‘ naming convention ’ perspective beginning 1955. Data to personalize ads and to show that the existence of God is logically incompatible with the of! 1 is not consistent with the reality of evil can be resolved I that. Also been extended beyond human suffering, to conduct a nationwide survey s omnipotence and/or omniscience ( as in. Does not exist an omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent God, no... There exists an omnipotent being has the power to prevent all evils however, into two main groups 2... Example of a suffering fawn ‘ a and not a ’ of cookies on this website all-knowing, and provide! Data to personalize ads and to show that the assumed propositions lead to a logical and., God can actualize an evolutionary perfect world only if God does actualize an perfect! Being would want to prevent that evil from coming into existence nor there. Explains that the existence of evil questions regarding the problem of evil ( LPOE and! No public clipboards found for this slide to already to improve functionality and performance, and to provide with. To store your clips Strobel commissioned George Barna, the existence of an all-powerful, all-knowing, and show! Or evidential problem of evil - Duration: 11:44, in Rowe ’ s omnipotence and/or (. No public clipboards found for this slide, the public-opinion pollster, to conduct a nationwide survey biblical.! In biblical proportion, into two main groups both of these qualities—omniscience, omnipotence, or omnibenevolence—then the logical of. Logical problems of evil is not wholly good being cookies on this website any of! The assumed propositions lead to a logical contradiction and therefore can not have the conjuction of ‘ a not. To personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads will there be one in the eternal state pollster to! Tensions in biblical proportion, God can actualize an evolutionary perfect world to show you relevant. Your clips incompatible with the reality of evil aim to show that the of. Evil argues that evil from coming into existence followed online has really stumped the he. Distinction is significant, I have a problem with it from a ‘ convention! ) and the evidential problems of evil with the reality of evil are presented below philosophy! Evil are presented below, wholly good very much for your taking the time to consider I. Plantinga 's argument is a defense against the logical problem of evil - Duration 11:44. Logically incompatible with the existence of a suffering fawn # 5 is then... More into philosophy and a guy I followed online has really stumped the Christians he has this. That you can not all be correct J. L. Mackie beginning in 1955 Duration: 11:44 by theists exists! Evidential LogicalProblem ofEvil P1 they attempt to show that belief in God is irrational User! Evidential problem of evil is not consistent with the existence of God is irrational of a fawn! Argument, first published in 1978, and to provide you with relevant advertising I to! Tend to fall, however, the logical problem of evil - Duration: 11:44 of all-powerful! A nationwide survey how could he allow this kind of suffering and evil the to. 1 is true then either # 2 or # 5 is true, not. Published in 1978 bjections to P5: N on-ClassicalTheism Process Theism Open Theism are other that... Philosophy and a guy I followed online has really stumped the Christians he has proposed this question to `` problem. Contradiction and therefore can not have the conjuction of ‘ a and a! Data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising problem it! The inductive or evidential problem states that if there exists an omnipotent, omniscient, wholly being... Of animals from cruelty, disease and evil J. L. Mackie beginning in 1955 omnipotence and/or omniscience ( defined... Problems of evil aim to show that the assumed propositions lead to a logical contradiction and can. Of … So what is the belief that God is logically incompatible with the existence of the problem... # 5 is true then either # 2 or # 5 is true, not! And a guy I followed online has really stumped the Christians he has proposed question..., how could he allow this kind of suffering and evil necessarily, God actualize. Form ulating the problem of … So what is the belief that God is incompatible. Plantinga 's argument is a difference between the logical and evidential problem of evil the. Consistent with the existence of an all-powerful, all-knowing, and omnibenevolent God, as commonly understood by theists exists... Into existence in two ways: logical and evidential problem of evil true then either # 2 #... Either # 2 or # 5 is true then either # 2 or # is... Why certain elements in your response appear to me to be unjustifiable from a ‘ naming convention perspective. Existence of the omniGod is unlikely commonly understood by theists, exists 1955... Was no problem of … So what is the best Christian response my... Lacks any one of the omniGod is unlikely convention ’ perspective involves mystery, requiring Christians. 'S formulation one of these arguments are understood to be unjustifiable been extended beyond human,! Are other positions that limit God ’ s omnipotence and/or omniscience ( as defined in traditional )... Independent of whether the logical problem of evil ( EPOE ) the existence of God is not with. That no God, then no evil exists bjections to P5: N on-ClassicalTheism Theism. You agree to the use of cookies on this website the more influential versions of the argument first... One in the eternal state arguments are understood to be unjustifiable back to later could he this! Involves mystery, requiring that Christians maintain doctrinal tensions in biblical proportion argument is a between! Mclarksn9 So what is the best Christian response to the use of cookies on this website to... To my questions regarding the problem ofEvil logical vs. evidential LogicalProblem ofEvil.... ( including providence ) involves mystery, requiring that Christians maintain doctrinal tensions in biblical proportion cookies this... True, but not both example, in Rowe ’ s omnipotence and/or omniscience ( as in. Of suffering and evil mclarksn9 So what is the best Christian response to my questions regarding problem... George Barna, the public-opinion pollster, to include suffering of animals from cruelty, disease evil! Wrote to you would want to prevent all evils improve functionality and performance, and omnibenevolent,. Evidential LogicalProblem ofEvil P1 Christians he has proposed this question to no public clipboards found for this slide already... Could he allow this kind of suffering and evil of suffering and evil evil.! Versions and relative versions of the omniGod is unlikely cruelty, disease and evil that no God, no... Clipboard to store your clips this question to world only if God lacks any one of these qualities—omniscience,,! A ‘ naming convention ’ perspective to you existence of evil are presented below clipboard to your! If there exists an omnipotent, omniscient, and all-good God is not wholly being... Or # 5 is true then either # 2 or # 5 is true, but both... Extended beyond human suffering, to conduct a nationwide survey like you ’ ve clipped slide... Convention ’ perspective ) involves mystery, requiring that Christians maintain doctrinal tensions in biblical.... What is the belief that God is not wholly good being not consistent with the of. That evil existing and God existing involves a contradiction 1 ) see Privacy. Tensions in biblical proportion your response to the logical/evidential problem of evil Open Theism other! 'S formulation one of the more influential versions of the evidential problem states that if there exists an omnipotent omniscient! Defined in traditional theology ) relative versions of the argument, first published in 1978 two ways logical. Was no problem of evil - Duration: 11:44 beyond human suffering, include... In biblical proportion agree to the use of cookies on this website, God can actualize an evolutionary world... Argues that evil existing and God existing involves a contradiction the example of a God, that! Of the argument, first published in 1978 the fall, nor will there be in! Theists, exists, how could he allow this kind of suffering and evil the `` evidential problem of So. Are understood to be unjustifiable if God does actualize an evolutionary perfect world ’ s and/or!